NARKAMON 50 mg/ml injection solution
Ketamine. Short term general anaesthesia for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures
|type of preparative:||Analeptic, anaesthetic, hypnotics|
|target species animals:||Sheep, Horse, Dog, Goat, Cat, Cattle|
Active substance: ketaminum (ut Ketamini hydrochloridum) 50 mg in 1 ml
Excipients: water for injection
Solution for injection. Clear, colourless solution
Species and category of animals:
Horse, calf, sheep, goat, dog, cat, feline, monkey, ape, antelope, deer, roe deer, bird of prey, parrot, pigeon, reptile, mouse, rat and guinea pig.
After parenteral (intramuscular or intravenous) administration, ketamine induces so-called dissociation anaesthesia (desensitization) with somatic (bodily) and visceral (splanchnic) analgesia (the inability to feel pain). The muscle tone is normal or just slightly increased. Ketamine is absorbed quickly after intramuscular or intravenous administration. The substance does not accumulate in the organism more intensely by repeated application. It stimulates the blood circulation system. Only high doses, mainly at intravenous application, induce a temporary debilitation of the blood circulation system.
After intramuscular or slow intravenous administration, the product has a minimal effect on breathing. A faster intravenous injection may induce apnoea in small animals. Pharynx and larynx reflexes are not suppressed, the bronchial tubes are dilated. Stimulation in the pharynx and larynx area may induce a convulsionary contraction of larynx. Ketamine increases secretion in the respiratory tract and salivation.
Body temperature may be increased or decreased temporarily. The eyelid and cornea reflex is preserved, the palpebral aperture remains open. Ketamine increases the intracranial and intraocular pressure.
As a monoanaesthetic (separately) to examine and treat cats and to perform shorter surgeries not requiring myorelaxation (reduced muscle tone). In combination with tranquilizers (drugs that reduce tension or anxiety), injection or inhalation anaesthetics (desensitizers) for a majority of medium and larger surgeries in horses, calves, sheep, dogs, cats, zoo animals, small animals, birds and reptiles.
In patients with epileptic or epileptoid attacks. In case of cerebrospinal injury, eclampsia, myleography. Ketamine alone in horses due to uncontrollable excitation. Caution should be taken in patients with breathing disorders (at i.v. administration) and hepatic and renal function impairment.
Undesirable effects occur mainly at a fast application of higher doses. They include accelerated heart activity or arrhythmia.
Nystagmus (involuntary eye movement) is manifested at the onset of desensitization and the eyes may remain open.
Muscle rigidity, tremor, spasms to epileptiform seizures.
Ketamine increases the effect of tubocurarine. Barbiturates and narcotics extend the effect of ketamine. Ketamine may be combined with a majority of common anaesthetics, myorelaxants and substances used for premedication.
Posology depends on the animal species, the method of administration and the required intensity of anaesthesia. The effect of ketamine may be extended in all domestic animals by a repeated administration of 1/3 to 1/2 of initial dose at the moment of first symptoms of awakening.
Only in combination with tranquilizers. Most frequently used combinations for very short procedures in a lying patient:
Xylazine 1.1 mg/kg b.w. slowly intravenously, after the onset of intensive sedation ketamine is administered in a dose of 2.2 mg/kg b.w. quickly intravenously within 2 minutes. The animal lies down spontaneously (a forced throwing down in chains is contraindicated) in 45 seconds to 3 minutes. The duration of effect is individual, from 4 to 30 minutes.
Calf, sheep, goat:
Atropine 0.1-0.2 mg/kg b.w. intramuscularly, 10 - 15 minutes later 10 mg/kg b.w. of ketamine intramuscularly.
Ketamine in combination with xylazine is the most frequent method of general anaesthesia in dog.
Atropine 0.05 mg/kg b.w. + xylazine 1-2 mg/kg b.w. + ketamine 10-20 mg/kg b.w. simultaneously or successively intramuscularly. In brachycephalic patients (breeds with a shortened skull), patients with a higher weight, old patients or patients with an impaired general state of health, lower limit doses should be selected. The onset of anaesthesia is observed within 5 - 10 minutes and its duration is 20-30 minutes. Bigger and big dog breeds: Atropine 0.05 mg/kg + xylazine 1-1.5 mg/kg b.w. simultaneously intramuscularly. 5-10 minutes later, 2 mg/kg b.w. of 1% ketamine solution, slowly intravenously. Anaesthesia starts after the ketamine injection is terminated and persists for 10-15 minutes.
For sedation, 5-10 mg/kg b.w. to examine and treat the animal without any pain. For general anaesthesia, 20-25 mg/kg. b.w. intramuscularly. Intensive analgesia (painlessness) starts 5-10 minutes later and persists for 20-40 minutes. Only for interventions that do not require relaxation. To reduce the percentage of side ketamine manifestations and to achieve relaxation, the following procedure is recommended: atropine 0.05 mg/kg b.w. + xylazine 0.5 mg/kg b.w. subcutaneously (or diazepam 0.25-0.5 mg/kg b.w. intramuscularly). 15-20 minutes later, ketamine 10-15 mg/kg intramuscularly.
Xylazine 1-2 mg/kg b.w., ketamine 2-4 mg/kg, ketamine (separately) 7-8 mg/kg b.w.
Ketamine (separately) 8-10 mg/kg b.w.
Xylazine 0.5-1 mg/kg b.w., ketamine 3-5 mg/kg b.w.
Antelope, deer, roe deer:
Xylazine 1-3 mg/kg b.w., ketamine 2-7 mg/kg b.w.
Bird of prey:
15-30 mg/kg b.w.
20 mg/kg b.w.
20-40 mg/kg b.w.
50-100 mg/kg b.w.
125-200 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally
80-130 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally
100-200 mg/kg b.w. (in combination with xylazine 25-100 mg/kg b.w.)
Route of administration:
Ketamine is applied intramuscularly (i.m.) or intravenously (i.v.). Atropine is recommended to reduce salivation.
During the onset of effect and awakening the animals should not be disturbed with noise and other stimuli. Otherwise, psychomotoric unrest to excitations may occur when higher doses are applied without a suitable premedication. If body temperature is decreased during the ketamine anaesthesia, the patients should be held in a tempered environment.
If the eyes are open, the cornea should be protected before desiccation with eye drops or ointment.
In case of suppressed breathing due to overdose or fast i.v. application, deepened pulmonary ventilation by manual or mechanical thorax compression is necessary up to the onset of sufficient spontaneous breathing.
Before the pharynx, larynx and trachea surgery myorelaxants (drugs that reduce muscle tone) should be used.
Twelve-hour starvation is recommended before administration.
Store at a temperature between 10 and 25°C, protect from the light.
In horses and donkeys, the use of ketamine alone is unsuitable due to uncontrollable excitations.
Meat 24 hours, no withdrawal period for milk.
24 months, 28 days after the first opening (application).
+420 517 318 598